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波蘭村莊殉難者陵墓建筑設計 | Nizio Design International

NizioDesign 2021-09-13
原創

從建筑外部北側和南側立面看,坐落于波蘭小鎮Michniów的殉難者陵墓使人聯想起錯落有致的鄉村木屋。這些具有象征意義的小屋有著令人不安的形態。如經歷過災難、地震或大火一般,破裂的碎片聚集,依舊是分離的狀態。這座雕塑般的陵墓是一個建筑性紀念館,由Nizio國際設計事務所設計;它是1943年二戰期間Michniów及多個波蘭村莊恢復寧靜的象征。該陵墓從立項至今已歷時近13年,終于在2021年7月12日,即Michniów解放78周年,也是波蘭村莊斗爭和殉難者紀念日之際而正式開放。

Viewed from the outside, from its northern and southern elevations, the building of the Mausoleum of Martyrdom of Polish Villages in Michniów brings to mind wooden country cottages arranged one behind the other. This row of symbolic huts has a disturbing form. Individual segments are crashed together and become disintegrated, as after a cataclysm, an earthquake or a fire. The sculptural solid of the Mausoleum, designed by Nizio Design International, is an architectural memorial; a symbol of the pacifications that took place in Michniów and other Polish villages in 1943, during World War II. After nearly 13 years since the project’s inception, on July 12th, 2021 the Mausoleum was officially opened on the 78th anniversary of the pacification of Michniów – on the Day of Struggle and Martyrdom of Polish Villages. 


▼項目俯視圖

Aerial view ? Marcin Czechowicz

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位于Michniów的波蘭村莊殉難者陵墓是一種建筑式的紀念。整座建筑主體反映出破壞和湮滅的過程,這啟發了Nizio國際設計事務所總設計師Miros?aw Nizio創造出這一雕塑形態。建筑前側與鄉村房屋類似。最前端、最完整的建筑部分被稱為寧靜之屋。接下來的部分則傳遞出打破某種“世界秩序”的戲劇性過程:建筑被分解、破壞,就像火災殘跡一般?;炷两Y構上布滿了碎片、刻痕、裂縫的痕跡,營造出令人情緒起伏和緊張的氛圍。整座建筑和內部,以及永久展覽,全都受到歷史事件和解放所帶來的巨大影響的深刻啟發;它們標志著波蘭村莊在二戰時期、以及被納粹和蘇俄占領時期遭受的壓迫。

The building of the Mausoleum of Martyrdom of Polish Villages in Michniów is an architectural form of commemoration. The solid reflects the process of destruction, annihilation, that inspired Miros?aw Nizio, the head of Nizio Design International, to create this sculptural form. In the foreground, the Mausoleum resembles a rural house. This first, intact part of the building is the House of Tranquillity. Subsequent segments convey the dramaturgy of the process that has upset a certain “order of the world”: the solid is degraded, destroyed, as in the aftermath of a fire. The concrete structure is marked with fractures, cuts, tears which generate emotions and tension. Both the architecture and the interior of the Mausoleum, as well as the permanent exhibition, are strongly inspired by historical events and the dramatic effects of pacification; they are a symbol of the repression that affected Polish villages during World War II and the Nazi and Soviet occupations.


▼建筑的分裂 

The segementation of the architecture ? Marcin Czechowicz    

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波蘭村莊殉難者陵墓項目始于2009年。當時,Miros?aw Nizio領銜的團隊剛剛贏下由投資者組織的凱爾采鄉村博物館設計競賽的一等獎?!翱赐陸鹎癕ichniów村莊的照片,它的小屋、居民和日常生活的景象使我們感到在與一個充實、完整、有著自然節奏的生活相連接。然而當我們查看1943年解放時期的照片時,我們看到了人間百味,死亡、燃燒的房子,我們觸碰到痛苦的歷史,體驗到生命線被無情切斷所造成的情緒。我們感受到當時隨處可見、持續的破壞。這個過程和感受成為設計室內空間和展覽的推動力?!?Miros?aw Nizio回憶道。

紀念館總占地超過16 000平方米。建筑形態受雕塑的啟發,試圖展現建筑和歷史敘事之間的融合。陵墓整體由11個碎片組成——進入場地,訪客首先會來到5個碎片圍合而成的空間中。雕塑般的、被分解的部分面向自然、天空和景色敞開,這一處會隨著天氣而變化,甚至有時變化得非常劇烈。透過玻璃和裂縫,訪客可以看到建筑四周的落葉松。這些落葉松的形態和象征意義啟發了裂縫元素的設計。建筑形態本身的寓意、以及刻意為之的衰敗過程,為這里營造出一種獨特的氛圍。光線從建筑碎片間的裂口進入室內。不同季節及每天不同的時間,光線可以聚焦在室內展區和開放展區的不同部分。建筑和布景的細節加強了感官體驗。冷酷禁欲的混凝土構成了建筑實體,象征性的木紋印記也清晰可見?;炷谅l出一種光澤,時間的流逝和自然之力也都影響到它的質感和顏色。墻壁、屋頂結構和鋼材記錄下水、灰塵和泥土的腳跡。這使得建筑與四周環境更加融為一體,并在這片土地上扎根下來。

The project of the Mausoleum of Martyrdom of Polish Villages in Michniów was created in 2009. That was when the team led by Miros?aw Nizio won the first prize in the competition organised by the investor – the Kielce Countryside Museum. “Viewing historical photographs of the pre-war village of Michniów with its cottages, its inhabitants, scenes from everyday life, we felt that we were interacting with something full, complete, with the natural rhythm of life. In turn, when looking at the photographs of the pacification of 1943, seeing human drama, death, burning houses, we touched upon painful history, experienced the emotions that accompany the violent breaking of the lifeline. We felt this pervasive and growing destruction. This process served as the impetus for the design of the exterior and the exhibition,” Miros?aw Nizio recalls. 
The designed museum as a whole covers more than 16,000 m2. The form of the building was determined by sculptural inspirations and the wish for unity between the architecture that is being designed and the historical narration. The monolithic body of the Mausoleum consists of 11 segments – entering the premises, the visitor first enters five closed segments. The sculptural, degraded part is open to nature, sky and landscape, changing – sometimes abruptly – as the weather conditions change. Through the glazing and the rips in the structure one can see the larch crosses surrounding the building. Their shape and symbolism inspired the form of the rips. The expressive architecture and intentional, progressive degradation of the solid create a unique atmosphere of the place. The light reaches the interior of the building through the cracks between the segments; depending on the time of the day and the season, it models the area of the permanent exhibition, located in the closed and open parts of the building. Architectural and scenographic details are designed to intensify the sensory experience. On concrete, the cool and ascetic material from which the solid is made, the symbolic imprint of the wood grain is noticeable. Concrete develops a patina. The passage of time and the forces of nature have influenced its texture and colour. The wall and roof structure and the steel components bear traces of water, dust and soil. This makes the solid become even more integrated with its surroundings and take root in the context of the place.


▼建筑采用的冷酷材料 

The cold materials used in the architecture ? Marcin Czechowicz

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陵墓的永久展覽區占地約1700平方米。講解員述說著解放來自于受害者的犧牲和重建起秩序的人們。當參觀者穿越建筑的不同區域時,他們會看到一片被燒焦的廢墟。室內空間的主要材料有混凝土、附近破舊小屋和谷倉的木材,以及黑鋼。它們也是展覽敘事的重要媒介。展區以照片、歷史文件和多媒體的形式呈現。參觀者可以聞到鋼鐵和燒焦的木頭產生的刺鼻氣味。這些元素都是為了刺激參觀者的感官。大型不規則形狀的雕塑,仿照的廢墟小屋,是紀念館的展示內容之一。部分展品被刻有印記的黑色鋼鐵片所覆蓋,展現出解放的歷史。

The permanent exhibition of the Mausoleum covers an area of about 1,700 m2. The narrators telling about the effects of pacification are the victims and the people responsible for the orders. As the visitors pass through successive parts of the building, they are faced with charred ruins. The materials that dominate in the interior are concrete, wood from the old huts and barns that was brought in from the surrounding villages, and black steel; they serve as a medium for the exhibition narrative. The displays present photos and historical documents, multimedia. The viewer can feel the disturbing smell of steel and blackened, scorched wood. All these factors are designed to affect the senses of the visitors. Large-sized sculptural objects of irregular shapes, resembling ruins of huts, are one of the elements of the museum content presentation. Some of them were covered with sheets of black steel with prints presenting the history of the pacification.


▼永久展覽區中的展品 

The items of the permanent exhibition ? Marcin Czechowicz

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▼展覽區中設計過的光影 

The manipulation of light in the permanent exhibition ? Marcin Czechowicz 

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建筑和永久展覽區均由Nizio國際設計事務所設計,這保證了兩處敘事的連貫性,也對該項目產生了巨大的價值。項目在概念和施工階段已經受到全世界的好評。2011年,事務所獲得了歐洲財產獎公共服務性建筑類別的榮譽。世界最知名的建筑和設計門戶網站之一,dezeen.com將該項目評為2016年最受期待的12個建筑之一。2021年6月,Miros?aw Nizio在第十屆POLITYKA建筑競賽中獲得了最受網友歡迎獎。

Nizio國際設計事務所是波蘭村莊殉難者陵墓的主設計團隊。該團隊由Miros?aw Nizio領銜,承擔了建筑設計、室內設計和土地開發中概念階段,建造階段和實施階段的所有任務。設計團隊同時還監管了從項目初期到最終完成的全過程。此外,事務所還提供了項目實施監督,Miros?aw Nizio承擔了有關布景和永久展覽的平面設計的事務。

The fact that Nizio Design International designed both the architecture and the permanent exhibition, taking care of the coherence of these two narratives, is a great value of the project, which has been appreciated all over the world already at the concept and construction stage. In 2011, the studio was honoured with the European Property Award in the Public Service Architecture category. Dezeen.com, one of the most influential portals about architecture and design, listed the Mausoleum as one of top 12 buildings to look forward to in 2016. In June 2021, Miros?aw Nizio received the Internet Users’ Award for the design of the Mausoleum in the jubilee 10th edition of the POLITYKA Architectural Award competition.
Nizio Design International architectural studio is the chief designer of the Mausoleum. The team led by Miros?aw Nizio was responsible for the design of the architecture and the interiors as well as for land development – in the concept, construction and implementation phases. The team also oversaw the work under the project from the beginning until the completion. The studio also provided the project author’s supervision over the implementation, and Miros?aw Nizio oversaw the activities related to scenography and graphic design of the permanent exhibition.



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