首頁  /  看設計   /  景觀  /  正文

美國摩爾廣場景觀設計 | sasaki

SASAKI 2021-06-09
原創
  • 項目名稱:
    摩爾廣場
  • 項目地點:
    美國北卡羅來納州羅利市
  • 項目規模:
    1.8 公頃
  • 設計公司:
    sasaki 
  • 委托方:
    羅利市政府
  • 建成時間:
    2019
  • 圖片來源:
    Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly

過去兩百多年來,摩爾廣場一直扮演著城市綠洲的角色,青草如茵、綠樹成蔭的環境,讓人們無論陰晴都能在這里悠然自得,歡度時光。如同全球享負盛名的公共廣場,占地逾1.8公頃的公園為迎合當地市民變化不斷的使用需求歷經了多番變遷;然而,它作為公共空間的功能從未動搖。

For over two centuries, Moore Square has persisted as an urban green space of tree canopy and turf providing a mix of shady and sunny places to gather and recreate, to see and be seen. Like all great public squares, the 4.5 acre park has evolved over time to fulfill the changing needs of the City of Raleigh. Its character of continuity lies in its persistent use as a public space.


▼摩爾廣場俯瞰圖

View from above ? Tzu Chen

01_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg


摩爾廣場的歷史可追溯到兩個多世紀之前。1792年,羅利市成為北卡州首府,同年,擁有測量師背景的參議員威廉?克里斯馬斯(William Christmas)獲國會推舉為這座新城定制土地和街道規劃方案,他從400多公頃的林地選取了當中160公頃進行開發,并參考了費城的規劃格局,按幾何網格布置羅利市的城市肌理。在當年眾多規劃舉措中,保留至今的只剩下摩爾廣場、納什廣場和國會大廈廣場,這些場地都是美國建國初期重要的市鎮規劃案例。

In 1792, the same year Raleigh was founded as North Carolina’s capital city, the General Assembly chose Senator William Christmas, a surveyor, to envision the lots and streets of the new capital. Christmas laid out 400 acres of city fabric through 1,000 acres of woodland, in a geometric grid which emulated the plan of Philadelphia. Moore Square, along with Nash Square and Capitol Square, is one of three remaining squares originally planned by Christmas and, as such, it is a significant example of early American town planning. 


▼幾何網格式的城市肌理 

Geometric grid of the city ? Tzu Chen 

03_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg


隨年月過去,廣場的景觀形態、空間和路徑都已改變不少,但是那寬敞無邊的草坪依然碧綠蓊郁。隨著該區從住宅區慢慢發展為商業區,并從農產品交易中心過度成蓬勃的商貿重地(《吉姆?克勞法》年代的一條非裔美國人隔離街道也在其中),摩爾廣場周遭的土地和建筑物在用途和性質上都改變許多。為了配合這些轉變,廣場原有的鄉土景觀也不免換了新面貌;這些倉促無序、且越發頻密的更新措施,為后來的改造工程埋下伏筆。

While an enduring greensward, Moore Square’s landscape forms, spaces and surfaces have evolved over time. This evolution has occurred in response to changes in the character and use of the urban context—the surrounding blocks and buildings. As the area evolved from a residential to a commercial district, from an agricultural trading center to a vital business and commercial district including Raleigh’s African American main street during the Jim Crow era, the Square transformed the way vernacular landscapes do—incrementally, gradually, and often through a series of ad hoc measures.


▼摩爾廣場上歷史悠久的寬闊草坪 

Enduring greensward in the square ? Barrett Doherty

17_Moore Square_Barrett Doherty.jpg


到了近年,公園的植被、土壤和道路更因為頻繁的大型活動和日常使用而承受巨大壓力,加上周邊社區的開發計劃陸續啟動,市政府不得不為廣場謀求改造,以配合使用者日益變化的需求。Sasaki與羅利市政府、利益相關單位和技術專家團隊合作,以市民大眾的利益為依歸為摩爾廣場制定規劃改造方案。

In recent years, frequent large scale events and daily use have taken their toll on the parks vegetation, soils and paving. This pressure, combined with the planned development in the surrounding neighborhood, has prompted the City to renovate the square to meet the changing needs of its users. Sasaki has worked with the City, public stakeholders and a team of technical experts to develop a consensus-driven plan for the square.


▼以市民大眾利益為依歸的改造方案

Design aims to meet the changing needs of its users ? MTA

08_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

14_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


設計方案利用 “方籃”策略,對廣場的歷史布局加以保護和強化:開放式中央露天空間的四邊將種滿高大的遮陰樹,如同一個綠意滿溢的邊框;廣場的與街道相接一側的人行道將會拓寬,同時增建寬敞的入口廣場和一排排花崗巖矮墻座位,這不僅為了滿足使用者要求,加強廣場和相鄰街區的連接,也讓廣場顯得更高雅端莊;廣場南側的路邊停車位會被移除,以寬廣的長形廣場取代,農夫市場和社區活動日后可在這里舉行;各個十字路口的形態也得到重新設計,通過壓縮路口寬度以提升行人過路安全。

The proposed design protects and strengthens the square’s historic configuration: a frame of large shade trees enclosing an open, sunny central space. At the street edge, where users requested greater connectivity to the adjacent blocks, the design features a “dignified frame” of widened sidewalks, granite seat walls, and spacious entry plazas. On-street parking has been removed along the square’s southern edge to create a wide linear plaza that will host future farmers markets and other community events. Bump-outs have been added at all crosswalks to make pedestrian access to the square safer. 


▼寬敞的中央廣場

 Open and sunny central space ? Tzu Chen

05_Moore Square_Tzu Chen.jpg

▼有座椅的小型聚會空間

Gathering spaces with seats ? MTA

13_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


矗立于廣場四周的老橡樹絕對是公園的經典特色,部分樹木樹齡更已過二百年,別具歷史價值。為保護這些珍貴的自然景觀,關鍵的樹根范圍被劃定為保護區,禁止行人進入。為確切落實這些保護措施,設計方案利用一系列悉心構建的步行通道、矮圍欄和地被植物,讓行人自然而然地留在劃定的路線上行走。如果各個保護區之間在規劃或未來三十年發展過程中出現縫隙,管理者將種植新的樹木加以填補,以確保邊界保持完整。

The grand oak trees surrounding the square, some of which are over 200 years old, are the park’s defining feature. The design protects the trees by limiting foot traffic within their critical root zones. This achieved through judicious placement of pedestrian paths, and a combination of low rails and groundcover planting to dissuade people from leaving the paths. Where gaps in the tree perimeter exist, or will likely develop in the next 30 years, new trees will be planted to ensure the frame remains intact.


▼老橡樹的樹根范圍被圍欄保護起來

Foot traffic is limited within the root zones of the grand oak tree ? MTA

07_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

12_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


在廣場范圍內,通行流線在沿用多年的X形基礎上發展,其中一條新建的外緣路徑,讓訪客有機會圍繞中央草坪休閑漫步。中央草坪經重整后,帶來靈活而開放的社區空間,適合用作季節性大型節目場地。整個草坪從西北到東南形成平緩的坡地,儼如一座綠意環抱的圓形劇場。三個昵稱為“格羅夫客房 (Grove Rooms)”的小型聚會空間被樹木保護區所圍繞,藝術家布拉德?戈德堡(Brad Goldberg)設計的石墻坐席擺設其中,散發獨有氣氛。

In the interior of the square, circulation follows an historic X pattern, with a new perimeter path creating a promenade encircling the central lawn. The lawn has been engineered to meet the community’s demand for flexible open space, as well occasional need for larger gatherings. The entire lawn has a gentle pitch from northwest to southeast to create an amphitheater effect.  Three small gathering spaces, nicknamed “Grove Rooms,” are tucked within the tree frame. These feature stone seating elements design be artist Brad Goldberg.


▼中央草坪成為開放的社區空間

The central lawn as a flexible open space ? MTA

04_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

06_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼昵稱“格羅夫客房 (Grove Rooms)”的小型聚會空間

Gathering spaces nicknamed “Grove Rooms”? Barrett Doherty

15_Moore Square_Barrett Doherty.jpg

▼藝術家布拉德?戈德堡(Brad Goldberg)設計的石墻坐席

Stone seating elements design by artist Brad Goldberg? MTA

16_Moore Square_MTA.jpg


摩爾廣場東南角是星羅棋布公共設施群,當中以多用途的市民廣場為軸心,朝向西面的互動噴泉立于其中,把午后以至黃昏的陽光映照得閃閃生輝,一排排遮陰樹和靈活坐席則可以滿足附近居民各種各樣的戶外活動需求。開敞透光的藤蔓架把市民廣場南側點綴,也發揮凝聚社區的功能,藤蔓架中央的一座小亭樓容納了咖啡廳、公共衛生間和儲存空間,其設計受本地建筑風格啟發,在外立面呈現石材、木材和金屬三種原生材料。摩爾廣場設有無障礙游樂區,其設計主題使人想起廣域山麓地區的材質和地形特色。

The southeast corner of the square is home to a constellation of public amenities anchored by a flexible civic plaza. The plaza features an interactive fountain which faces west to capture afternoon sunlight. The plaza also includes flexible seating and shade trees to address the neighborhood’s need for flexible outdoor social spaces. The sense of social space is reinforced by an open, airy trellis which frames the plaza’s southern edge. A small pavilion at the center of the trellis contains a café, public restrooms and storage. Inspired by the vernacular architecture of the region, the pavilion fa?ade foregrounds three native materials: stone, wood and metal. Lastly, the square includes an accessible play area designed to evoke the materials and topography of the broader piedmont region.


▼互動噴泉

Interactive fountain? MTA

10_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼容納了咖啡廳、公共衛生間和儲存空間的小亭樓

A small pavilion contains a café, public restrooms and storage ? MTA

11_Moore Square_MTA.jpg

▼市民廣場發揮凝聚社區的功能

The sense of social space reinforced by the square ? MTA

09_Moore Square_MTA.jpg



項目信息

業主:羅利市政府

位置:美國北卡羅來納州羅利市

規模:1.8 公頃

攝影:Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly

專業領域:市政工程、景觀

額外服務:建筑、公眾參與、生態學、室內、規劃與城市設計

現況: 2019完成


Client: City of Raleigh

Location: Raleigh, NC

Size: 4.5 acres

Photography: Tzu Chen, Matthew Arielly, Barrett Doherty

Services: Civil Engineering, Landscape Architecture

Additional Services: Interior Design, Planning and Urban Design, Architecture

Status: Completed 2019


編輯:周舟


版權聲明:本文版權歸原作者所有,請勿以景觀中國編輯版本轉載。如有侵犯您的權益請及時聯系,我們將第一時間刪除。

投稿郵箱:info@landscape.cn

聯系電話:010-62747757


1

發表評論

您好,登錄后才可以評論哦!

熱門評論

相關項目

再敢躲一下试试by,鱿鱼网进入官网by777,在线观看国产成人swag,,公和我做爽死我了