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西安潏河樊川公園景觀設計 | 土人設計

土人設計 2021-08-30
原創
  • 項目名稱:
    西安常寧新區長安大道潏河橋以東區域景觀提升工程
  • 項目地點:
    陜西省西安市常寧新區
  • 項目規模:
    16.6公頃
  • 設計公司:
  • 委托方:
    西安市常寧新區管理委員會
  • 建成時間:
    2020年5月
  • 圖片來源:
    望山影像

項目簡介

Project introduction


潏河屬于長安八水中較窄、較短的一支,長度約64.2km。樊川湖項目毗鄰潏河的中段,常寧新區的東北角。場地占地16.7公頃。西安近年來的高速發展帶來的大建設產生了大量的城市建筑垃圾,西北的黃土高坡可堆土的區域較少,地勢較低的西安八條生命河流慢慢的淪落為堆土的首選地,八水繞長安的城市美景也慢慢的變了質,本次項目的潏河兩岸也遭遇了此災難。設計師根據項目的現狀情況,對潏河周邊的自然風貌進行了規劃和定位,建成以生態修復、自然觀光、休閑娛樂、人文體驗為一體的城市濕地公園。

Juehe River is a narrow and short branch of Chang'an’s Eight Rivers, with a length of about 64.2km. The Fanchuan Lake project is adjacent to the middle section of Juehe River and the northeast corner of Changning new district. The site covers an area of 16.7 hectares. In recent years, the rapid development of Xi'an has brought about a large number of urban construction waste. The loess high slope in the northwest has few areas to pile up soil. The eight rivers of life in low-lying Xi'an have gradually become the preferred place to pile up soil. The beautiful scenery of Chang'an city surrounded by eight rivers has gradually changed. The two sides of the Juehe River of this project have also suffered this disaster. According to the current situation of the project, the designer planned and positioned the natural landscape around the Juehe River to build an urban wetland park integrating ecological restoration, natural sightseeing, leisure and entertainment, and humanistic experience.


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目標與挑戰

Objectives and challenges


設計的目標:將公園打造為以生態修復、自然觀光、休閑娛樂、人文體驗為一體的城市郊野公園。

本項目主要面臨三大挑戰:

1.場地堆土問題的解決:場地由原有的低洼肥沃的農田被垃圾堆土慢慢的堆砌起來,河道被擠壓,兩側地形較陡,建筑垃圾形成的土壤使植物難以生長。如何解決河道兩側堆土,如何利用建筑垃圾作為景觀的基底,變廢為寶是設計的第一項挑戰。

2.河道的疏通:建筑垃圾的傾倒,部分進入了河道內部,使原有的河道流線改變,河道貫通性不佳。如何疏通現有河道,使其具備自然的流線,豐富其植物凈化系統是設計的第二項挑戰。

3.人群活動與自然環境的融合:場地內垃圾土壤的亂堆亂放使場地道路流線無序組織。疏通場地流線,植入場地游憩功能及休憩節點,能讓市民在感受自然環境的基礎上,停留休憩是設計的第三個難點。

The goal of the design is to build the park into an urban country park integrating ecological restoration, natural sightseeing, leisure and entertainment, and humanistic experience.
The project faces three major challenges:
1. Solution to the problem of piling soil on the site: the original low-lying fertile farmland is slowly piled up by garbage, the river is squeezed, the terrain on both sides is steep, and the soil formed by construction waste makes it difficult for plants to grow. How to solve the problem of piling soil on both sides of the river, how to use construction waste as the base of landscape, and how to turn waste into treasure are the first challenges of design.
2. Channel dredging: the dumping of construction waste, part of which goes into the river, changes the original river streamline and makes the river poor connectivity. How to dredge the existing river, make it have natural streamline and enrich the plant purification system is the second challenge of the design.
3. The integration of crowd activities and natural environment: the disorderly stacking of waste soil in the site makes the site road streamline disorderly organized. The third difficulty of the design is to dredge the streamline of the site and implant the recreational function and node of the site, so that the public can stay and rest on the basis of feeling the natural environment.




設計策略

Design Strategies


針對上述問題與挑戰,本案例中嘗試了棧橋式親水湖岸的設計。具體做法有三點:

策略一:土方平衡,物盡其用

場地中從岸上到河床最大高差處約有將近15米高差,首先對河道邊的陡坡進行消弱,改為平緩的緩坡,設計1:3以下的安全坡度,以滿足植物種植及人群安全,同時也給河道留有可伸縮的河水流動空間,讓其具有彈性,當雨季來臨時擁有足夠的空間儲存雨水,緩解下游徑流壓力;削掉的建筑垃圾土壤進行景觀化處理,在道路兩邊堆土成為景觀地形,垃圾土壤作為地形下的景觀土壤基礎,上部覆種植用土壤;其中少部分的生活垃圾埋入土中經過長時間的分解,在冬天可以在地下分解產生熱量,可升高植物根系的溫度,對植物的冬季生長環境提供幫助。

策略二:強化潏河生態通廊

場地原有潏河河道與樊川湖被建筑垃圾相隔,樊川湖的水成了死水,常年無流動,水質得不到應有的凈化。項目先打通場地阻隔潏河和樊川湖的土壤,通過一條內河連接樊川湖與潏河。利用海綿系統設計,在道路邊設置雨水收集溝,除地表自然徑流流入水系外,雨水收集溝也系統地將雨水引導收集并排入河道中作為景觀用水。

另外在場地東南角位置,有一個自來水廠的尾水出口水渠,通過與相關負責人溝通得到數據顯示,最高擁有10個流量,且水質較為干凈。設計中將此處尾水出口引入到樊川湖之中,以帶動湖中的水流動。讓流動的水通過開挖的的內河流入潏河下游。通過兩條線路的打通,還給河道一個完整的流線,同時也聯通了樊川湖,流動的水進入后將凈化湖中的死水,并且帶去多樣化的動植物,恢復水中生態環境。

策略三:人性化設計,滿足各方需求

土方的整理以及河道的疏通完成之后,給場地帶來了一個生態的基底。之后,開始在生態的基底之上建立以人為本的活動節點。

1)梳理道路流線:根據場地中原有踩出的道路流線基礎上進行設計,通過自行車道,人行步道,過水棧橋以及滿足偶爾通車的防汛通道,組織豐富的交通系統,滿足各個方面的人群需求,讓原本孤立的河道兩岸,聯通在一起,相互呼應;合理布置機動車道和停車空間;集中停車位約100個,滿足日常的基本停車需求;以慢行系統串連各個功能區域,營造慢跑、散步、穿行在內的多種游憩體驗。道路路面大部分采用可透水鋪裝,避免雨水堆積。沿途鋪設雨水收集設施,緩解瞬時雨洪壓力。

2)增加人群活動節點:場地土方的整理及水系的貫通給景觀場地提供了生態的基礎,道路的貫通讓場地四通八達。設計師再交通網絡和景觀視角優秀處設計出城市緩沖區、活力運動區、濱水休閑區三個設計節點。

a.城市緩沖區:在場地設計南北兩側設置主次入口作為城市緩沖區域,連接城市空間,引入人群。滿足人群進入公園后能及時提供休憩服務。保留原有構筑物建筑作為休憩使用。

b.活力運動區:在河道南岸設置運動場,兒童活動區域以及草坪休閑區域。運動場設置籃球場羽毛球場乒乓球場等一些比較常規適合大眾的運動休閑項目,利用清理出來的建筑垃圾的堆坡,做景觀地形給運動的人有一個獨立的活動空間,并配置服務建筑滿足正常的需要。兒童活動場地利用場地原有地形高差,配置滑滑梯,秋千,攀巖等項目,在場地中做沙坑滿足孩子的玩耍需求。同時考慮家長的休閑,在兒童活動場地邊也設置座椅等觀景的活動場地。另外在南岸腹地位置留出大面積的草坡,開拓視野,滿足人群休閑活動,可組織戶外露營,燒烤,小型音樂會等多方面的活動,滿足各類人群需求。

c.濱水休閑區:場地潏河和樊川湖邊經過土方和水系的梳理后形成良好的景觀界面,可作為優質的休閑場所,設計根據場地特征,在景觀較好的界面設計了景觀休閑節點,其中包括潏河邊的濱水景觀棧道,樊川湖邊的景觀濱水廣場,北岸的濱水挑臺以及一些小型的濱水臨時停留空間。讓人群在休閑中可以享受親水的樂趣。

3)添置構筑物:場地中構筑物包括景觀休閑廊架,景觀步行橋,通過空間的變化營造不同的觀景效果。在材料使用上多使用鋼結構基礎,施工方便快捷。部分使用玻璃鋼材料,玻璃鋼材料有著通體性的特征,使廊架整體結構統一,一體成型。另外在構筑物的鋪裝方面使用了竹木鋪裝以及透水混凝土鋪裝。竹木使較為新型的材料,竹木的快速生長繁殖的特性,給景觀材料帶來了較為生態環保的可行性。

4)植物修復,生態保育

植物設計利用場地的河岸邊的優勢,對植物種植進行梳理研究,采用適應性、經濟性、生態型原則對場地植物進行生態化修復。

選用鄉土樹種或已再本地成長環境較為適應,且不會對其他物種造成侵害的外來樹種;保留現狀長勢良好的植物,新增喬木與地被植物選用成本較低、成長較快、且容易管理的品種;綠地低于道路,有效收集道路積水,結合綠地中的坡度和收水設施,經各種植物的凈化、吸收和蓄存,構建相對穩定的植物群落,為水凈化蓄存和生物保育提供良好的自然條件,從而形成可持續發展的生態綠地。

In view of the above problems and challenges, this case attempts to design the trestle type hydrophilic lake shore. 
There are three specific strategies:
Strategy 1: Balance the earthwork and make the best use of the left materials
Weaken the steep slope of the river side and change it into a gentle slope to meet the plant planting and the safety of the population. At the same time, it also leaves a scalable flow space for the river to make it elastic. Landscaping the construction waste soil, let the soil piled on both sides of the road become landscape terrain, and the upper part is covered with planting soil.
Strategy 2: Strengthening ecological corridor of Juehe river
The soil of Juehe river and lake Fan Chuan is blocked by the site, and the Fan Chuan lake and the Juehe River are connected through an internal river. The sponge system is used to design and collect rainwater and discharge it into the river as landscape water. The water supply outlet in the southeast corner of the site is connected with the inland river to provide a complete streamline for the river, and restore the water ecological environment.
Strategy 3: Humanized design to meet the needs of all parties
After earthwork treatment and the dredging of the river are completed, it brings an ecological base to the site. After that, we began to establish human-oriented activity nodes on the basis of ecology. The measures including: combing the road streamline, increasing the activity nodes of the population, adding structures, plant restoration and ecological conservation.




結論

Conclusion


西安的八大水系守護著幾千年來的西安文明??焖侔l展的城市化進程產生了大量的建筑垃圾及生活垃圾,八水繞長安的城市美景也在這場城市化運動中也遭受了大量的破壞。通過本次的項目研究,希望能給西安地區的相似場地建筑垃圾的景觀化處理以及水系的生態化處理帶來一定的參考。樊川公園建成后為當地居民帶來了一條新生的河流,成為周邊居民休閑娛樂、周末帶娃的備選地之一,一個個美好的畫面成為西安老百姓日常生活的真實寫照。

The eight water systems in Xi'an protected the civilization of Xi'an for thousands of years. The rapid development of urbanization has produced a large number of construction waste and domestic waste. The beautiful city sceneries of eight rivers around Chang'an has also suffered a lot of damage in this urbanization movement. Through this project research, we hope to bring some reference to the landscape treatment of construction waste in similar sites in Xi'an and the ecological treatment of water system. After the completion of Fanchuan Park, it has brought a new river to the local residents and become one of the alternative places for the surrounding residents to have leisure and entertainment and take their children on weekends. The beautiful pictures have become a true portrayal of the daily life of the people in Xi'an.



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